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General Modeling


f ce = Average (expected) compressive strength ofconcrete
f ck = Characteristic compressive strength of concrete
f co = Uncovered concrete compressive strength
f ye = Average (expected) yield strength ofreinforcing steel or structural steel
f yk = Characteristic yield strength of reinforcing steel or structural steel
f sy = yield strength of reinforcing steel or structural steel

TBDY 5.4.1. General Modeling Rules - Building carrier systems will always be modeled in three dimensions. - The earthquake effect in two horizontal directions perpendicular to each other will always be taken into account. - Linear damping ratio shall be taken as 5%, unless otherwise specified. - The second order effects caused by the axial forces in the deformed carrier system shall be taken into account. - The material strengths given in (a) and (b) below shall be taken as basis in modeling based on evaluation and design according to shape change :

(a) The current strengths of concrete and reinforcement steel defined in Section 15 shall be taken as basis in the assessment of existing buildings according to deformation .

(b) In the evaluation and design of new buildings according to deformation, the expected (average) strengths of concrete and reinforcement steel and structural steel defined in Table 5.1 shall be taken as basis. F in Table ce and f ck concrete and the mean compressive strength characteristic, f ate and f yk shows the mean and the typical yield strength of steel. - In the new reinforced concrete structural systems with high ductility level to be evaluated according to this Chapter, due to the preliminary design made according to the principles of capacity design and other ductile design rules, in-line strength reduction, shear damage, column-beam joint area damage, Reinforcement overlap length and confinement reinforcement insufficiency effects may not be taken into account in structural system and cyclic behavior models. - Modeling and calculation rules for the evaluation of existing buildings and retrofit design are given in Chapter 15 .


TBDY Section 15.2.3. Current Material Strength The material strengths
to be used in calculating the capacities of the bearing elements are defined as the current material strength in this Chapter of the Regulation ( TBDY Chapter 15 ) .

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