# Flexural Strength

Flexural strength is calculated automatically.

**Notation**

**A _{s}**

**area of nonprestressed longitudinal tension reinforcement, in**

_{ }=^{2}

*depth of equivalent rectangular stress block, in.*

**α =***web width or diameter of circular section, in.*

**b**_{w }=*distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis, in.*

**c =**

**C**_{c}**concrete**

_{ }=**compressive force, lb**

**C**_{s}**reinforcement tension force, lb**

_{ }=*distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of longitudinal tension reinforcement, in.*

**d =***specified compressive strength of concrete, psi*

**f**_{c}^{'}_{ }=*specified yield strength for nonprestressed reinforcement, psi*

**f**_{y }=*nominal flexural strength at section, in.-lb*

**M**_{n }=**ϕ**

*strength reduction factor*

**=***net tensile strain in extreme layer of longitudinal tension reinforcement at nominal strength, excluding strains due to effective prestress, creep, shrinkage, and temperature*

**ε**_{t }=**β**factor relating depth of equivalent rectangular compressive stress block to depth of neutral axis

_{1 }=**Flexural Strength**

Nominal flexural strength * M_{n}* is calculated based on the following

*Design Assumptions*. According to

**ACI 22.1.3,**design strength of a section is

**ϕ**

*.*

**M**_{n}**Design assumptions**

The flexural and axial strength of a member calculated by the strength design method, two basic conditions should be satisfied:

equilibrium

compatibility of strains

Equilibrium means balancing of forces acting on the element cross section at nominal strength. Stress-strain relationship for the concrete and the reinforcement at nominal strength is established within the design assumptions described follow:

Equilibrium is satisfied at each section.

It is assumed that strain in concrete and reinforcement is proportional to the distance from neutral axis.

Design strength is calculated by using these assumptions together with design assumptions for concrete described follow:

Maximum strain at the extreme concrete compression fiber is assumed equal to 0.003.

Tensile strength of concrete is neglected.

The relationship between concrete compressive stress and strain is represented by equivalent rectangular concrete stress distribution method.

Concrete stress of

is assumed uniformly distributed over. Equivalent rectangular concrete stress zone bounded by edges of the cross section and a line parallel to the neutral axis located a distance**0.85f**_{c}^{'}from the fiber of maximum compressive strain, as calculated by:**α**

The distance between the fiber of maximum compressive stress and the neutral axis,

, is perpendicular to the neutral axis.**c**The value of

**β**is determined using_{1}**ACI Table 22.2.2.4.3**.

Nominal flexural strength * M_{n}* is calculated as shown below.

The total forces * C_{c}* and

*resulting from the stresses of concrete and reinforcement are shown below.*

**C**_{s}From the equation of equilibrium:

Nominal flexural strength * M_{n}*:

According to **ACI 22.1.3, **design strength of a section is taken as the nominal strength multiplied by the applicable strength reduction factor ϕ. Therefore, the design force is **ϕ*** M_{n}*.

The difference between Design Strength **ϕ*** M_{n}* and Nominal Strength

*is indicated in the figure below.*

**M**_{n}