Ne,d = Design normal force
Npl,Rd = Design plastic resistance to normal forces of the gross cross-section
Nu,Rd = Design ultimate resistance to normal forces of the net cross-section at holes for fasteners
A = Gross area
Anet= Net area
fy = yield strength
fu = ultimate strength
If axial tensile elements are used together with bolted connections, the yield stress will be reached earlier in the areas where the bolt holes are located. This situation will affect the strength calculations made with the linear elastic assumption by using the load-displacement curve.
Tension element are designed according to Eq. 6.5.
Design strength of axial tensile elements are used together with bolted connections is determined according to the smallest of Eq. 6.6, and 6.7.
Plastic resistance of the gross-section
Ultimate resistance of the net cross-section