5.3.2. Distributed Plasticity Models – Spread plastic behavior models can also be used as a nonlinear behavior model in columns, beams and reinforced concrete walls that make up the building's load-bearing system. – Spread plastic behavior models can be used to take into account finite length end regions (plastic deformation regions) or nonlinear deformations along the entire length of the element in a continuous (spread) fashion. – The section cell (fiber) model, in which concrete or structural steel is modeled with sufficiently small cells in the cross-section and steel reinforcement bars individually and nonlinear axial stress unit deformation relations in each cell can be taken into account cyclically, in practice, it can be used for nonlinear modeling of reinforced concrete walls. With this model, in reinforced concrete walls with complex cross-section (T, L, U or C shape), the cross-section can be divided into various regions in the plan, and a two-dimensional finite element network can be formed in each curtain arm by considering finite-length pieces along the curtain in the vertical direction. – Parallel to the section cell (fiber) model used for modeling the nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete walls under bending and axial force, shear deformations in the wall can also be approximated by a linear shear model connected parallel to the finite element mesh mentioned in . The shear modulus to be used in this model can be taken from Table 4.2. – Material strengths will be taken according to – Generally accepted models will be used as a cyclical behavior model for concrete and steel fibers in the nonlinear earthquake calculation to be made in the time domain according to 5.7.