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Coordinate system and end force directions for shell elements

Coordinate System

1- Axes

Axes and joint numbers of the shell element are shown in the figure

2- Direction and meaning of Shell element forces

M11, M22

Bending moments in 1 and 2 axes


Planar torsion moment

V13, V23

Cutting forces perpendicular to the surface of the element

F11, F22

Tensile forces in the element plane in the direction of interest


Element shear force

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