• Wall design shear strengths are calculated automatically.

  • Wall required shear strengths are calculated automatically.


Notation

Acv = gross area of concrete section bounded by web thickness and length of section in the direction of shear force considered in the case of walls, and gross area of concrete section in the case of diaphrams. Gross area is total area of defined section minus area of any openings, in.2
Acw = area of concrete section of an individual pier, horizontal wall segment, or coupling beam resisting shear, in2.
bw = width of compression face of member, in.
D = dead load
E = earthquake load
fc' = specified compressive strength of concrete, psi
√fc = square root of specified compressive strength of concrete, psi
fy = specified yield strength for nonprestressed reinforcement, psi
fyt = specified yield strength of transverse reinforcement, psi
h = overall thickness, height, or depth of member, in.
hw = height of entire wall from base to top, or clear height of wall segment or wall pier considered, in.
hwcs = height of entire structural wall above the critical section for flexural and axial loads, in.
ln = length of clear span measured face-to-face of supports, in.
lu = unsupported length of column or wall, in.
lw = length of entire wall, or length of wall segment or wall pier considered in direction of shear force, in.
L = live load
Lr = roof live load
Mu = factored moment at section, in.-lb
Mpr = probable flexural strength of members, with or without axial load, determined using the properties of the member at joint faces assuming a tensile stress in the longitudinal bars of at leasts 1.25fy and a strength reduction factor ϕ of 1.0, in.-lb
ns = number of stories above the critical section
Pn = nominal axial compressive strength of member, lb
Pu = factored axial force; to be taken as positive for compression and negative for tension, lb
R = rain load
S = snow load
Nu = factored axial force normal to cross section occurring simultaneously with Vu or Tu; to be taken as positive for compression and negative for tension, lb
positive for compression and negative lb
Ve = design shear force for load combinations including earthquake effects, lb
Vc = nominal shear strength provided by concrete, lb
Vn = nominal shear strength, lb
Vs = nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement, lb
Vu = factored shear force at section, lb
wu = factored load per unit length of beam or one-way slab, lb/in.
W = wind load
αc = coefficient defining the relative contribution of concrete strength to nominal wall shear strength
ϕ = strength reduction factor
v = overstrength factor equal to the ratio of Mpr/Mu at the wall critical section
λ = modification factor to reflect the reduced mechanical properties of lightweight concrete relative to normalweight concrete of the same compressive strength
ωv = factor to account for dynamic shear amplification
ρl = ratio of area of distributed longitudinal reinforcement to gross concrete area perpendicular to that reinforcement
ρt = ratio of area of distributed transverse reinforcement to gross concrete area perpendicular to that reinforcement


Wall required strength is calculated in accordance with the factored load combinations in Load Factors and Combinations title. Required shear strength of a wall Vu ,is obtained from Load Combinations given in ACI Table 5.3.1.

Shear wall is designed leg by leg for each of the design load combination given above.

Strength reduction factors ϕ is determined according to using ACI Table 21.2.1.

Shear design strength at all sections should be satisfy the condition ϕVn ≥ Vu.

According to ACI 11.5.4.3, nominal shear strength Vn is calculated by ACI Eq. (11.5.4.3) given below;

  • αc = 3 for hw/lw ≤ 1.5

  • αc = 2 for hw/lw ≥ 2.0

  • αc is calculated by linear interpolation between 3 and 2 for 1.5 < hw/lw < 2.0.

  • For walls subjected to a net axial tension, αc is calculated according to ACI Eq. (11.5.4.3);

According to ACI 11.5.4.2, maximum in-plane shear strength of shear wall or shear wall leg is given below;


Earthquake Resistant Structures

Special structural walls

Concrete Shear Wall Design title also contains requirements for the dimensions and details of special structural walls and all components. Design provisions for special structural walls depend on the ratio of the wall dimentions such as (hw/lw) and (lw/bw).

Design shear forces for structural shear walls are obtained from lateral load analysis with suitable load factors increased to account for two approaches given below; as shown ACI Fig. R18.10.3.1;

  • flexural overstrength at critical sections where yielding of critical sections is expected,

  • dynamic amplification due to higher mode effects,

According to ACI 18.10.3.1, the design shear force Ve should be calculated by ACI Eq. (18.10.3.1);

Required shear strength of a wall Vu ,is obtained from lateral load analysis with factored load combinations given in ACI Table 5.3.1.

Overstrength factor, v is calculated in accordance witg ACI Table 18.10.3.1.2 given below.

Mpr given in ACI Table 18.10.3.1.2 is calculated by using a strength reduction factor, ϕ of 1.0 and longitudinal reinforcement with an effective yield stress equal to 1.25fy.

According to ACI 18.10.3.1.3, if hwcs/lw < 2.0 , for shear walls, ωv should be taken as 1.0. Otherwise, ωv should be calculated by ACI Eq. (18.10.3.1.3);

ns is number of stories above the critical section and minimum value of ns is 0.007*hwcs.

According to ACI 18.10.4.1, shear strength, Vn, should be calculated by ACI Eq. (18.10.4.1) given below.

  • αc = 3 for hw/lw ≤ 1.5

  • αc = 2 for hw/lw ≥ 2.0

  • αc is calculated by linear interpolation between 3 and 2 for 1.5 < hw/lw < 2.0.

λ=1 for normalweight concrete.

According to ACI 18.10.4.3, shear walls should have distributed shear reinforcement in two orthogonal directions in the plane of the wall. If hw/lw ≤ 2.0 , reinforcement ratio ρl should be at least the reinforcement ratio ρt.

According to ACI 18.10.4.4, for all vertical wall segments that resist lateral loads, maximum value of Vn should be 8√fc‘Acv. For any one of the individual vertical wall segments, maximum value of Vn should be 10√fc‘Acw.

According to ACI 18.10.4.5, For horizontal wall segments and coupling beams, maximum value of Vn should be 10√fc‘Acw.