TBDY Chapter 5.3.1 The Stacked Plastics Behavior Model - The Piled Plastic Behavior Model (Plastic Hinge) can be used as a nonlinear behavior model for columns, beams, and reinforced concrete walls that can be modeled as frame (rod) finite elements , and which meet the geometric condition given in . - In the Lumped Plastic Behavior Model , it is assumed that plastic deformations occur uniformly along finite-length regions where internal forces reach their plastic capacity. The length (L p ) of the plastic deformation zone, which is called the plastic hinge length, shall be taken equal to half of the cross section dimension (h) in the running direction (L p = 0.5h). - The length of the plastic deformation zones of the elements that make plastic deformation only under axial force shall be taken equal to the free length of the relevant element. - The plastic hinge representing the stacked plastic deformation should theoretically be placed in the middle of the plastic deformation zone specified in . However, in practical applications the approximate idealizations specified in for beams and columns and for walls may be allowed. - Conditions for defining the effective yield moments of reinforced concrete plastic joint sections are given in (a) , (b) , (c) below :

(a) Material strengths will be taken according to .

(b) In the calculation of the effective yield moment, the pressure unit deformation of the concrete can be 0.0035, and the unit deformation of the reinforcing steel can be taken as 0.01.

(c) Axial forces arising from vertical loads shall be taken into account in the calculation of effective yield moment. - The hardening effect (increase of plastic moment due to the increase of plastic rotation) in bidirectional internal force-plastic deformation relations of reinforced concrete and steel sections can be abandoned.

According to - 5.6 and 5.7 , the elasto-plastic standard cycle model for steel bearing systems as a cyclic behavior model in the nonlinear earthquake calculation to be made in the time domain according to 5.6 and 5.7 . Models derived from it can be used to provide


TBDY Article - The material strengths given in (a) and (b) below shall be based on modeling based on evaluation and design according to shape change :

(a) The current strengths of concrete and reinforcement steel defined in Section 15 shall be taken as basis in the assessment of existing buildings according to deformation .

(b) In the evaluation and design of new buildings according to deformation, the expected (average) strengths of concrete and reinforcement steel and structural steel defined in Table 5.1 shall be taken as basis. F in Table ce and f ck concrete and the mean compressive strength characteristic, f ate and f yk shows the mean and the typical yield strength of steel.