# Calculation of Modal Response Parameters

Modal response spectrum analysis specified in **12.9.1** is done automatically.

In accordance with 12.9.1.1, the sufficient number of vibration modes to be taken into account is calculated automatically as 90%.

With the modal response analysis, seismic effects are combined automatically by CQC.

**Symbols**

* m_{i}* = total mass of the

*storey*

**i**^{th}*= mass moment of inertia of the*

**m**_{iθ}*storey*

**i**^{th}

**m**_{ixn }^{(X)}**= (X) for the earthquake direction, the i'th storey modal effective mass of the nth natural vibration mode of the building in the x-axis direction**

*= (X) for the earthquake direction i'th storey modal effective mass*

**m**_{iyn }^{(X) }*= (X) of the building's nth natural vibration around the z-axis for the earthquake direction i'th storey modal effective mass moment of inertia*

**m**_{iθn }^{(X) }*= Finite Element Analysis node j to effect individual masses*

**m**_{j }^{(S) }*= (X) earthquake direction for building the x-axis direction of the nth vibration mode of base shear modal effective mass*

**m**_{txn }^{(X)}

**m**_{tyne }^{(Y)}**= (Y) earthquakes base shear in the building along the y axis for the direction of modal effective mass**

*= (X) earthquake direction for any behavior variables (displacements and relative storey drift, strain component) corresponding to the coupled typically*

**r**_{max }^{(X) }*to maximum modal behavior of size*

*= Typical unit modal behavior magnitude corresponding to any action magnitude (displacement, relative floor displacement, internal force component) for the earthquake direction in the nth natural vibration mode (X),*

**r**_{n }^{(X) }*= nth natural vibration mode ( X) Typical largest modal behavior magnitude corresponding to any action magnitude (displacement, relative floor displacement, internal force component) for the earthquake direction*

**r**_{n,max }^{(X) }*= reduced design spectral acceleration for the nth vibration mode*

**S**_{aR}(T_{n})*= nth mode natural vibration period*

**T**_{n }*= ratio of mth and nth natural vibration periods*

**β**_{mn }*= nth natural vibration mode shape amplitude at i'th storey (X) earthquake direction*

**Φ**_{i (X) n }*=nth natural vibration mode shape amplitude ati'th storey in x-axis direction*

**Φ**_{ixn }*= y-axis at i'th storey nth natural vibration mode shape amplitude in the direction*

**Φ**_{iyn }*= nth natural vibration mode shape amplitude as rotation around the z-axis at the ith storey*

**θ**_{iθn }*= (X) for the earthquake direction, modal contribution of the nth vibration mode multiplier*

**Γ**_{x }^{(X) }*= modal damping ratio of the nth vibration mode*

**ξ**_{n }*= Natural vibration angular frequency of the nth vibration mode*

**ω**_{n }*= Cross correlation coefficient of the mth and nth natural vibration modes in the Complete Quadratic Combination Rule*

**ρ**_{mn }**Modal Response Analysis Method**

In the modal response spectrum analysis method, the structure is decomposed into a number of single degree-of-freedom systems, each having its own mode shape and natural period of vibration. The number of modes available is equal to the number of mass degrees of freedom of the structure, so the number of modes can be reduced by eliminating mass degrees of freedom.

For a given direction of loading, the displacement in each mode is determined from the corresponding spectral acceleration, modal participation, and mode shape. Because the sign (positive or negative) and the time of occurrence of the maximum acceleration are lost in creating a response spectrum, there is no way to recombine modal responses exactly. However, statistical combination of modal responses produces reasonably accurate estimates of displacements and component forces. The loss of signs for computed quantities leads to problems in interpreting force results where seismic effects are combined with gravity effects, produce forces that are not in equilibrium, and make it impossible to plot deflected shapes of the structure.

Modal analysis provides the entire response history for a given ground motion record. For design

purposes, its application requires a design ground motion record that is representative of the seismic

hazard at the site. For design purposes, we usually use the maximum value of a response parameter and

not the entire response history. Since every mode can be treated as an independent SDOF system, the

maximum response values of a mode can be easily obtained from the corresponding response

spectrum. If S_{d}(T_{n}, x), S_{v}(T_{n}, x), and S_{a}(T_{n}, x) denote the spectral displacement, velocity and acceleration,

respectively, the maximum modal displacements are obtained from a response spectrum as

The maximum displacement and the equivalent lateral force of the j^{th} storey

It is used in the horizontal elastic design spectrum in the direction of a given earthquake and the maximum values of the response magnitudes in each vibration mode are calculated with the modal analysis method. The largest non-synchronous *modal behavior magnitudes* calculated for enough vibration modes are then combined statistically to obtain approximate values of the largest behavior magnitudes.

For each vibration mode considered, the largest modal behavior magnitudes namely displacements, relative floor displacements, internal forces and stresses are found. Located in the largest size modal behavior of *Complete Quadratic Combination. *It is combined using the (CQC) rule. In this analysis, it does not give information about when the said behavior magnitude occurred and its correlation with other loadings.

#### The Square Root of the Sum of Squares (SRSS) Rule

The most common rule for modal combination is the Square Root of Sum of Squares (SRSS) rule.

According to this rule, the peak response of every mode is squared and then the squares are summed.

The estimation of the maximum response quantity of interest is the square of the sum.

The major limitation is that in order to produce satisfying estimates, the modes should be

well separated, i.e., the eigenfrequencies should not have close values. If this condition is not met,

the CQC method should be used instead. A criterion to determine if two modes are well separated is

β_{nm }= w_{m}/w_{n }=T_{n} /T_{m }ζ_{n} and ζ_{m }the damping ratio of modes n and m.

#### The Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) Rule

where ϵ_{nm} is a correlation coefficient that takes values in the 0,1 range and is equal to 1 when n=m.

β_{nm} the correlation term is calculated as

If the same modal damping is used for modes n and m (ζ_{n} = ζ_{m} = ζ), the equation reduces to