# Shear Connection Design

**Shear Connection** design is made automatically according to *the Design, Calculation, and Construction Principles of Steel Structures* and *AISC 360-16* (ASD and LRFD) regulations. Bolt, weld, and plate controls, geometry controls, and strength controls are done automatically following the steel connection type.

A shear connection, also called a simple connection, is a joint that transfers shear forces between two members. It is a connection with pure normal force load (tension joint), pure shear loading, or a combination of normal and shear force. Shear connections are generally the most commonly used connections.

**The Shear Connections** in ideCAD Structural is a joint that transfers shear forces between a steel column and steel beam (or any other two steel members).

**Shear connection **types are listed below.

ideCAD Structural is an All-in-One Structural Engineering Software with Shear Connection and many other Integrated Building Information Modeling (BIM) tools.

**ideCAD for Shear Connection per AISC 360-16**

The failure mechanisms and strength assumptions used in the design of shear connections and connection elements are found as follows according to *ÇYTHYEDY 2018* and *AISC 360-16* regulations.

### Design Criteria for Shear Connection

It is assumed that the web of the cross-section resists the entire shear force.

There is no interaction between shear force and bending moment.

Shear strength is determined using the formula:

### Shear Strength

In stiffened and unstiffened single and double symmetrical cross-sections, the characteristic shear strength in the web is calculated as follows:

The coefficients for the I-cross section elements according to the slenderness ratio are determined as follows:

The allowable shear strength is calculated as follow:

### Bearing Connections

In the bearing connections, the strength is determined according to the smallest one by controlling 3 limit conditions.

Shear failure at the bolt.

Bearing limit state in the plate.

i) Tear-out limit state of the plate.

ii) Bearing limit state of the plate.

### Characteristic Tensile and Shear Stress Strengths of Bolts

Characteristic tensile strength F

_{nt}of bolts is calculated depending on the characteristic tensile strength of bolt material F_{ub}given in Table 2.2.

The characteristic shear stress strength of bolts, F

_{nv}, is calculated in two different ways:

i) If the threaded part of the bolt is in the shear plane.

ii) If the threaded part of the bolt is outside of the shear plane.

#### Characteristic Tensile Force Strength of Bolt Under the Combined Effect of Tensile and Shear Force

The characteristic tensile force or shear strength of prestressed high-strength bolts simply tightened bolts, and threaded cross sections are calculated according to the rupture limit state for the tensile forces and the tear-out limit state for shear forces.

#### Bearing Connections under the Combined Effect

### Bearing Limit States in the Plate (Bolt Holes)

The compressive stresses that occur between the bolt and plate are because of excessive deformations on the bolt and plate.

To compute the bearing stress between the bolt and the hole edge, the assumption of uniform distribution of stresses on this surface is defined.

#### Bearing Failure of the Bolt Hole

#### Tear-out Failure of the Plate

The characteristic bearing force resistance R

_{n}of a bolt hole is calculated based on the bearing limit state under the shear effect as follows:Regardless of the direction of the load, for connections formed from standard, oversized, and short-slotted holes or long-slotted holes with oval longitudinal axis parallel to the direction of the load:

For connections formed with slotted holes with oval longitudinal axis perpendicular to the direction of the load:

Safety factors depend on the method being used:

### Shear Resistance

The characteristic shear strength R

_{n}of the cross-section and connection elements under shear effect for the yield and rupture limit states are calculated as follows:

#### Yielding Limit State

#### Rupture Limit State

### Block Shear Limit State

The characteristic block shear strength Rn is calculated based on the yield and rupture limit states along the shear surface or surfaces and the rupture limit states along the tensile surface.

### Tensile Strength

The characteristic tensile strength R

_{n}of the cross-section and connection elements under the shear effect for tensile action is calculated for the yield and rupture limit states as follows:

#### Yielding Limit State

#### Rupture Limit State

**Symbols**

**A _{b}:** Non-threaded bolt characteristic cross-sectional area

**A _{w}:** Cross-section web area

**A _{g}:** Gross area

**A _{e}:** Effective net area

**A _{n}:** Net area

**A _{gv}:** Gross shear area

**A _{nv}:** Net shear area

**A _{nt}:** Net tensile area

**C _{v}:** Coefficient of reduction for shear buckling

**d:** Characteristic of bolt diameter

**d _{h}:** Bolt hole diameter

**F _{y}:** Specified yield stress of the type of steel being used, ksi (MPa)

**F _{u}:** Specified ultimate stress of the type of steel being used, ksi (MPa)

**F _{nt}:** Characteristic tensile tensile strength given in Table 13.7

**F' _{nt}:** Reduced characteristic tensile stress obtained by considering shear force effect

**F _{nv}:** Characteristic shear stress strength given in Table 13.7

**f _{rv}: **The greatest shear stress in the characteristic thread area of the bolt under LRFD or ASD load combinations

**F _{yb}:** Bolt characteristic yield strength

**F _{ub}:** Bolt characteristic tensile strength

**n _{sp}:** Number of shear planes

**U _{bs}:** A coefficient considering the distribution of tensile stresses

**s:** Distance between bolt holes center

**L _{e}: **The distance from the center of the bolt hole to the edge of the connected element

**t:** Plate thickness

**R _{nt} **: Characteristic tensile strength

**R _{nv} :** Characteristic shear strength

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