# Deformation Limits of Reinforced Concrete Elements

**ICONS**

* b _{w }=* Element body width

*Element useful height*

**d =***Current concrete tensile strength defined according to*

**f**_{ctm}=**15.2.4.3**

*Plastic hinge length*

**L**_{p}=*Shear opening*

**L**_{s }=**V**

_{e }*Design shear force based on column, beam and curtain*

**=****15.7. SHAPE CHANGING LIMITS**

**15.7.1. Section Deformation and Plastic Rotation Limits of Reinforced Concrete and Pre-fabricated Reinforced Concrete Elements**

**15.7.1.1 -** Unit deformation demands of concrete and reinforcement steel obtained according to **15.5.4** or **15.6.2** will be compared with the unit deformation capacities defined below, and the performance of the carrier system at the cross-section level will be determined.

**15.7.1.2 - If the** longitudinal reinforcements of the reinforced concrete elements **whose shape** deformation is calculated are arranged with un-ribbed (flat) reinforcing steel, the unit deformation demand of the reinforcing steel and the demand for plastic rotation will be increased by multiplying by 1.5.

**15.7.1.3 -** Permissible unit strain and plastic rotation upper limits (capacities) according to various section damage limits in reinforced concrete ductile beam, curtain and column elements where plastic deformations occur **5.8.1.1** , **5.8.1.2** , **5.8.1.3** and **5.8.1.4** ' well defined. **In the** calculation of ρ _{sh} in **Eq. (5.4d)** , 30% of 90 degree closed stirrups can be taken into account. **In Equation (5.6)** given in **5.8.1.2** , L _{s} shall not be taken less than L _{p} .

**15.7.1.4 - If the** shear force ratio V _{e} / (b _{w} d f _{ctm} ) of the reinforced concrete section for which deformation is calculated is <0.65, the upper limits of deformation calculated according to **15.7.1.3** are valid. If the shear force ratio is greater than 1.30 , the deformation upper limits calculated according to **15.7.1.3** will be reduced by multiplying by 0.50. Linear interpolation will be applied for intermediate values.

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