Transverse Reinforcement (CRD) per ACI 31819 with ideCAD
How does ideCAD control column transverse reinforcement detailing according to ACI 31819?
Transverse reinforcement detailing is applied automatically in accordance with ACI 10.7.6
Transverse reinforcement detailing is applied according to ACI Chapter 18 in earthquake resistant structure columns.
Download ideCAD for ACI 31819
Notation
A_{g} = gross area of concrete section, in.^{2} For a hollow section, A_{g} is the area of the concrete only and does not include the area of the void(s)
A_{b} = area of an individual bar or wire, in.^{2}
b_{w }= width of compression face of member, in.
d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of longitudinal tension reinforcement, in.
d_{b} = nominal diameter of bar, wire, or prestressing strand, in
f_{c}^{'}_{ }= specified compressive strength of concrete, psi
f_{y} = specified yield strength of nonprestressed reinforcement, psi
h = overall thickness, height, or depth of member, in.
h_{x } = maximum centertocenter spacing of longitudinal bars laterally supported by corners of crossties or hoop legs around the perimeter of a column or wall boundary element, in.
l_{d} = development length in tension of deformed bar, deformed wire, plain and deformed welded wire reinforcement, or pretensioned strand, in.
l_{o} = length, measured from joint face along axis of member, over which special transverse reinforcement must be provided, in.
l_{u} = unsupported length of column or wall, in.
P_{u}_{ }= factored axial force; to be taken as positive for compression and negative for tension, lb
s = centertocenter spacing of items, such as longitudinal reinforcement, transverse reinforcement, tendons, or anchors, in.
s_{o} = centertocenter spacing of transverse reinforcement within the length l_{o}, in.
The spacing of transverse reinforcement is determined automatically to meet the most restrictive requirements. The detail of transverse reinforcements is in accordance with Transverse Reinforcement per ACI 31819 with ideCAD title. The conditions given in the heading Transverse Reinforcement per ACI 31819 with ideCAD for column gives are given below.
Column Ties
Ties apply a closed loop of the deformed bar, and satisfy the rules:
Centertocenter spacing does not exceed at least 16d_{b} of the longitudinal bar.
The minimum diameter of the tie bar is controlled automatically according to ACI 25.7.2.2. The diameter of the tie bar is at least:
No. 3 enclosing No.10 or smaller longitudinal bars
No. 4 enclosing No.11 or larger longitudinal bars or bundled longitudinal bars
Rectilinear ties are arranged to satisfy the conditions given below:
Every corner and alternate longitudinal bar have lateral support provided by the corner of a tie with an included angle of not more than 135 degrees
No unsupported bar is farther than 6 in. clear on each side along the tie from a laterally supported bar
Lateral support of longitudinal bars using ties, hoops, and spirals
In any story, the bottom tie or hoop above the top of the footing or slab can be located at most half the distance of the tie or hoop spacing. Similarly, in any story, the top tie or hoop below the lowest horizontal reinforcement int he slab, drop panel, or shear cap can be located at most half the distance of tie or hoop spacing. (ACI 10.7.6.2)
In any story, the bottom of the spiral should be located at the top of the footing or slab. The top of the spiral should be located in accordance with ACI Table 10.7.6.3.2.
In cases where longitudinal bars are offset, horizontal support should be provided by ties, hoops, spirals, or parts of the floor construction should also be designed to resist 1.5 times the horizontal component of the calculated force in the inclined portion of the offset bar (ACI 10.7.6.4).
According to ACI 10.7.6.4.2, Transverse reinforcement should be placed not more than 6 in. from points of the bend.
The maximum spacing of shear reinforcement for nonprestressed columns is given ACI Table 10.7.6.5.2.
V_{s}  Maximum s, in. 





Columns of EarthquakeResistant Structures
Ordinary moment frames
All the transverse reinforcement detailing conditions described above are applied to columns of ordinary moment frames.
Columns of EarthquakeResistant Structures
Intermediate moment frames
All the transverse reinforcement detailing conditions described above are applied to columns of intermediate moment frames.
According to ACI 18.4.3.3, at the top and bottom ends of the column, hoops should be provided at spacing along a length measured from the joint face.
Spacing s_{o} should not be greater than all of the tree conditions given below.
For Grade 60 or S420, the smaller 8d_{b} of the smallest longitudinal bar is enclosed and 8 in.
For Grade 80, the smaller 6d_{b} of the smallest longitudinal bar is enclosed and 6 in.
Onehalf of the smallest crosssectional dimension of the column.
Length l_{o} should be greater than the maximum of conditions given below.
Onesixth of the clear span of the column
The maximum crosssectional dimension of the column
18 in.
According to ACI 18.4.3.4, the maximum distance between the first hoop and the joint face is s_{o}/2.
ACI 18.4.3.6 states that, Columns supporting reactions from discontinuous stiff members, such as walls, should be provided with transverse reinforcement at the spacing s_{o} in accordance with ACI 18.4.3.3 over the full height beneath the level at which the discontinuity occurs if the portion of factored axial compressive force in these members related to earthquake effects exceeds A_{g}f_{c}′/10. If design forces have been magnified to account for the overstrength of the vertical elements of the seismicforceresisting system, the limit of A_{g}f_{c}′/10 should be increased to A_{g}f_{c}′/4. Transverse reinforcement shall extend above and below the column in accordance with ACI 18.7.5.6(b).
Columns of EarthquakeResistant Structures
Special moment frames
All the transverse reinforcement detailing conditions described above are applied to columns of special moment frames.
According to ACI 18.7.5.1, Length l_{o} should be greater than the maximum of conditions given below.
The depth of the column at the joint face or at the section where flexural yielding is likely to occur
Onesixth of the clear span of the column
18 in.
The transverse reinforcement should satisfy all the conditions below along the length lo from each joint face and on both sides of any section where flexural yielding is likely to occur due to lateral displacements beyond the elastic range of behavior. According to ACI 18.7.5.2, transverse reinforcement should be in accordance with the following,
Transverse reinforcement should consist of single or overlapping spirals, circular hoops, or single or overlapping rectilinear hoops with or without crossties.
Bends of rectilinear hoops and crossties should engage peripheral longitudinal reinforcing bars.
Provided that ACI 25.7.2.2 limits are met, the crossover size may be equal to or smaller than the stirrup bar size. Consecutive crossties should be alternated end for end along the longitudinal reinforcement and around the perimeter of the crosssection.
Where rectilinear hoops or crossties are used, they shall provide lateral support to longitudinal reinforcement in accordance with ACI 25.7.2.2 and ACI 25.7.2.3.
While arranging the reinforcement, the spacing of longitudinal bars laterally supported by the corner of a crosstie or hoop leg, h_{x}, will not exceed 14 in. around the perimeter of the column.
Where P_{u}>0.3A_{g}f_{c}' or f_{c}'>10,000 in columns with rectilinear hoops, every longitudinal bar or bundle of bars around the perimeter of the column core should have lateral support provided by the corner of a hoop or by a seismic hook, and h_{x} smaller than 8 in.
According to ACI 18.7.5.3, the maximum spacing of transverse reinforcement should be the least of the conditions given below;
Onefourth of the minimum column dimension
For Grade 60 or S420, 6d_{b} of the smallest longitudinal bar
For Grade 80, 5d_{b} of the smallest longitudinal bar
s_{o}, as calculated by using ACI Eq. (18.7.5.3); (The value of s_{o} shall not exceed 6 in. and need not be taken less than 4 in.)
According to ACI 18.7.5.5, beyond the length l_{o}, the conditions given below should be satisfied;
The column should contain spiral reinforcement column shall contain spiral reinforcement in accordance with ACI 25.7.3 or hoop, and crosstie reinforcement should satisfy ACI 25.7.2 and ACI 25.7.4, with spacing s no more than 6 in.
For Grade 60 or S420, 6d_{b} of the smallest longitudinal bar
For Grade 80, 5d_{b} of the smallest longitudinal bar
According to ACI 18.7.5.6, columns supporting reaction from discontinued stiff members, such as walls, should satisfy two conditions below;
If the factored axial compressive force, P_{u,} of these columns, is greater than A_{g}f_{c}′/10, transverse reinforcement required by ACI 18.7.5.2, 18.7.5.3, and 18.7.5.4 should be provided over the full height at all levels beneath the discontinuity. The limit of A_{g}f_{c}′/10 shall be increased to A_{g}f_{c}′/4, if design forces have been magnified to account for the overstrength of the vertical element of the earthquake resistance structure.
Where l_{d} is in accordance with ACI 18.8.5., transverse reinforcement shall extend into the discontinued member at least l_{d} of the largest longitudinal column bar. Where the lower end of the column terminates on a wall, the required transverse reinforcement should extend into the wall at least l_{d} of the largest longitudinal column bar at the point of termination. If the column terminates on a footing or mat, the required transverse reinforcement will extend at least 12 inches into the footing or mat.
According to ACI 18.7.5.7, if the concrete cover outside the confining transverse reinforcement is greater than 4 in., additional transverse reinforcement having cover not exceeding 4 in. and spacing not exceeding 12 in. should be provided.
According to ACI 18.7.6.2.1, if both conditions are given below, transverse reinforcement over the lengths l_{o} should be designed to resist shear, assuming V_{c}=0.
The earthquakeinduced shear force, calculated in accordance with ACI 18.7.6.1, is at least onehalf of the maximum required shear strength within l_{o}.
The factored axial compressive force P_{u} including earthquake effects, is less than A_{g}f_{c}′/10.