Wind actions on structures and structural elements is determined taking account of both external and internal wind pressures.

A summary of calculation procedures for the determination of wind actions is given below.

Peak Velocity Pressure qp

  • Basic wind velocity, vb

  • Reference height, ze

  • Terrain category

  • Characteristic peak velocity pressure qp

  • Turbulence intensity Iv

  • Mean wind velocity vm

  • Orography coefficient co(z)

  • Roughness coefficient cr(z)

Wind Pressures

  • External pressure coefficient cpe

  • External wind pressure: we=qp cpe

Wind forces on structures

  • Structural Factor cscd

  • Wind force Fw